Carnatic Scale - Bharathi (C)
Carnatic Raga is commonly use in India especially south India. Carnatic Raga is often described as a scale in western music.
It is a main part of Carnatic music. The expressions and Dynamics is the main factor of Carnatic Ragas which means a particular combination of sounds ( (or swaras) which are happy or sad to listen . Thus different combinations of sounds make different ragas of which each has a unique identity. The main aims of learning Carnatic music is to achieve Raga knowledge. This is the ability to sing or perform in any instrument many different ragas and to be able to distinguish one raga from another.
Most of the Ragas are sometimes melodies types. The raga structure is a method of organizing tunes based on certain natural principles. Tunes in the same raga use the same (nominal) swaras in different combinations and with, the perfomer can be identify the similarity. All melakartha raga has Arohanam and Avarohanam, at the same time there is no change of Sa and Pa and other sounds will change two or three types (eg shudharishabham Ri1,chathusruthirishabham Ri2,shadsrutirishabham Ri3,shudhamadhamam Ma1,Prathimadhiamam Ma2). Arohanam is the sequence of sounds used in a Carnatic raga in the ascending order i.e. as the pitch goes up. Avarohanam is the sequence of sounds to be used in descending order. The Carnati raga is like a scale in western music..
There are two divisions of Carnatic ragas that is melakarta ragas and janya ragas. Melakarta ragas have a formal structure and follow a sequence of sounds whereas the janya ragas are rooted in usage and are liable to evolve with the music. In fact, janya ragas have many changes of their character. Janya ragas are derived from the melakarta ragas.. Melakarta ragas are identified by the sequence of sounds and the arohanam and avarohanam are always Sa-Ri-Ga-Ma-Pa-Da-Ni-Sa and Sa-Ni-Da-Pa-Ma-Ga-Ri-Sa.The 72 melakarta ragas are divided into two halves. The first session,01 to 36 ragas all have a perfect or natural fourth sound is shuddha madhyamam that means F note in western and the next session, 37 to 72 ragas of the second half are repetitions of the first 36 ragas with an augmented fourth sound is pratimadhyamam that means F# in western note. The melakarta raga is also divided into 12 chakras or cycles of six scales each. The Tonic (Sa) and Dominant (Pa) are constant in all the 72 ragas. The 12 chakras are Indhu,Netra, Agni,Vedha, BHana,Hrudhu, Hrishi,Vasu,Brahma, Dhisi,Rudra,Adithya.